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Jornal do Centro invests in a Profuz LAPIS system

Par : RadianceC

    Jornal do Centro invests in Profuz LAPIS allowing remote accessibility and enhancing outreach capabilities For immediate release – 14 July 2020, Lisbon, Portugal  – IABM-member PBT EU is delighted to confirm the adoption of a Profuz LAPIS system at Portugal’s Jornal do Centro in collaboration with reseller partner Pantalha.  Jornal do Centro selected ...

The post Jornal do Centro invests in a Profuz LAPIS system appeared first on NAB Show News | 2020 NAB Show Media Partner and Producer of NAB Show LIVE. Broadcast Engineering News.

Onomatopoeia Club

Audiovisual art doesn’t just have to be about performing, in fact, this year in light of the global pandemic, we’ve begun to see progressively more innovative and creative ways of the culture of sound and image begin to trickle into new realms and industries.

An AV Webzine

Presenting Onomatopoeia Club. As audiovisual culture vultures, way back in 2011, we saw a need to document, curate and to explore audiovisual culture as a whole as we saw it begin to unravel into its very own discipline.

Onomatopoeia Club have done something much in the same vain. They’ve created an online creative space where sound and visual artists can come together to collaborate on a short 30 second project. The project is a collaboration between Coda to Coda and Rosie Lee.

The most curious thing about this from a visual artist’s point of view is the fact that they have turned traditional VJ and music video culture on its head – rather than the visual artist creating content based on sound, they’ve taken a more soundtrack approach to the project.

How the artist collaboration works

The visual artist creates a 10 second loop, which the Onomatopoeia team turn into 30 seconds and THEN pass them on to a sound artist for the mini projects to be completed. The result? A quarterly webzine of 10-15 audiovisual collaborations and a lot of fun and inspiration.

They’e just launched their first edition (6th July) with a great mix of 12 artists’ collaborations. It’s really curious way to discover new visual and sound artists, and warning, it’s quite addictive. Maybe it’s just me, but I certainly can see and hear the difference of the sound being created after the visual… can you?

Top 3 Audiovisual Collaborations

Here are my faves from this month’s edition:

Cumi Na Gatandu: By Emily Evans (Visuals) & Auclair (Sounds)

This Place: By Catherine Repko (Visuals) & Luisa Gerstein (Sounds)

I cannot fly but I will not hit the floor: by Sophie Clements (Visuals) & Suitman Jungle (Sounds)

Check out the first edition and let us know your thoughts, and get in touch with them if you’d like to participate and have some fun, whilst meeting new artists!



Join the community and see new episodes via the Instagram channel!

The post Onomatopoeia Club appeared first on Audiovisualcity.

About Kusmos Live by Kuflex Lab

Par : Marco Savo

During these tough and uncertain times it has been inspiring to see so many audiovisual artists and events coming up with tools and formats to overcome the quarantine restrictions and social distancing.

A few weeks back the guys from Kuflex Lab reached out to showcase their latest tool that stands out among all the virtual/hybrid solutions we have seen so far. Kusmos Live allows to turn online concerts into interactive digital shows. Pretty neat uh?

Kusmos - Kuflex Lab - Audiovisual Interactive Tool

Let’s dive in and explore how it works. Down to the nitty-nerdy-gritty Kusmos is a custom VJ software written on openFrameworks + VDMX5 + Syphon.

In spring 2020 Kuflex studio began an experimental project Kusmos Live. The purpose of the experiment was to upgrade the Kusmos system in order to create a interactive online home shows.

In 2018-2019 the Russian audiovisual studio experimented with the innovative tool together with SILA SVETA studio on the Therr Maitz concert, Caprices Festival 2018, Nina Kraviz experimental performance at Coachella 2019.

OK, really cool but how exactly does interactivity work? We gave some feedback to Kuflex lab with a few tricky questions to better understand the whole potential of this new audiovisual tool.

KUFLEX: The Tracker program receives depth-sensor data, calibrates a point cloud as we need it (we can rotate the cloud, cut off everything you don’t need keeping only the data of the artist oneself and merge point clouds from two sensors) and sends it to the renderer (UE4 scene).

Scene functions build a 3D model using the data provided by the Tracker and then we can layer all kinds of features with effects on the model and also transform and distort it according to the artistic concept. We also captured video from the laptop’s webcam and sometimes showed its picture. 3D scene acting as the artist surrounding, a set of virtual cameras for capturing from different viewpoints and visual effects were set up in advance in the Unreal Engine. Then the OBS program captures the video of the launched scene and sends it to the video streaming server.

Kusmos Live - audiovisual tool

During our second live experiment we tested some new features for the viewers interactive communication with the stream. While Leksha (Smolensk, Russia) was playing his ambient-set, a VJ (Moscow, Russia) was controlling visual effects with the use of commands via YouTube chat in real-time mode. Our team has implemented this function between the concerts and decided not to tell the viewers about it.

During the stream, noticing weird messages in the chat, some of the viewers started to realize that they could not only send a message to the chat but to even affect visualization. In the end the concert has turned into a digital quest. Some viewers picked up effect control by sending particular commands to the chat. We have yet to comprehend how to develop this function in the future.

 AVC: We think it’s a really interesting and innovative project responding to the challenges of the pandemic. In terms of appeal for VJs there is the risk of potentially being extremely limited for the audiovisual artists creativity, and the aesthetic I guess would always be the same.

It would be key for the tool to have a wider range of possibilities of customization for the artists otherwise they might get tired soon. I guess they all want to leave their unique mark in the scene.

KUFLEX: Kusmos is a universal software tool, with the possibility of variability of visual and interactive solutions. As a rule, our team creates a virtual stage specifically for the performance of the musician. Of course, we want to upgrade the program creating a database with different scenes, effects. In this case, the user will be able to construct the scene himself and combine the effects for his live/stream. 

AVC: It’s a bit unusual to keep promoting the idea of “God is DJ”. Is the DJ persona so relevant the viewer wants to watch during the entire show in a virtual environment?

KUFLEX: Regarding Kusmos Live project, the Kuflex team is collaborating with various musicians. We wanted to support the performers. So this approach determined the emphasis on the figure of the musician on the virtual stage, under whose musical personality, sound we come up with a visual solution. We do not just shoot a video with a musician, as is often done in broadcasts, but create a digital avatar that changes depending on the script, music and VJ control.

At the same time, Kusmos Live is primarily a show, a kind of mix of live performance, a computer game and fantastic movie. The virtual camera can fly through digital space, we can switch to different visual elements of the scene and include additional visual effects to the music.

Kusmos Live - Audiovisual Tool

We try to achieve the effect of real interaction with the viewer as well. Our team is developing a function of interaction through chat – viewers’ comments fall into the scene, they can affect the content through certain chat commands. But Kusmos can be used by artists of other genres. In the near future we want to try to create a dance performance. Now we are discussing this idea with one Russian choreographer.

We will explore the topic of distances – where physical space ends, digital begins, the relationship of body and sound. Both dance and music will take place in live format.

Technically, the performer will find himself in different areas of camera scanning, on the screen we will observe how his digital avatar changes. Again, it will all be like shooting a movie in one shot and in real time!

360 Visual Festival - audiovisual event
AVC: We truly appreciate the viewers becoming active, participating and communicating with the stream. That creates a collective experience. Could people really tell if this was a live performance or not? It feels like the interaction should be more meaningful somehow, with a bigger impact to the overall audiovisual artwork.

KUFLEX: Our team worked on a concert from different cities. We thought about how best to organise remote control of virtual cameras and effects. And suddenly our creative director had an idea to manage content through Youtube chat. During the broadcast, he wrote commands like cam1 (switching camera 1), stars ( the star effect was launched).

We intentionally did not talk about this function in advance to get the quest. As a result, some viewers guessed and began to help in managing the scene. We explore different possibilities about other ways of interaction.

In the future we want to create a client application for connecting to the broadcast via a mobile phone, desktop PC screen or VR. We intend to develop Kusmos as an art tool. Our team believes in a power of collective interaction. We want to give a palette of visual solutions, effects. Let’s all together create beauty here and now! This idea is a sincere inspiration for us. 

AVC:  We would like to know more about how the collaboration you have done with Leksha where the viewers were controlling visual effects with the use of commands via YouTube chat in real-time mode.” How does the input of data modify the visuals? is it like a live coding or common human language and how it is related to the VR software?

kusmos live - kuflex and leksha - audiovisual artists

KUFLEX: Usually in an offline format, we work like this: musicians play music, and VJ manages visual content live using MIDI controllers. Some effects are linked to the amplitude of the sound. But in a situation where we did not have the opportunity to be onsite will all team, we decided to make control through chat commands.

We wrote a special function for our software that receives data from chat on YouTube using the Google API. We came up with several commands, for example: cam1, cam2, skin1, skin2, electric noise, lasers and the like. And when someone in the chat wrote one of these words, then a certain visual effect or a corresponding camera was included in our program.

In general, we have an idea to expand the number of commands and their appearance, so that it looks more like live coding. For example, add numerical arguments to the commands, which will additionally specify the parameters of a particular visual effect.

As for virtual reality, we have plans to create our own application for viewers who can watch live broadcasts using VR devices, thus more deeply immersing themselves in the atmosphere of the digital scene and additionally receive personal effects. 

Kusmos Live - audiovisual tool
 AVC: Fascinating this idea of “universal tool” for content in real time and interactive show. We think it’s important now to dig more into the idea of how it can involve more people in the creative process. It opens new ways of investigation on how to make every audiovisual experience unique, not only in terms of the aesthetics of the piece but also regarding the narrative.

KUFLEX: Yes, this is the main object of research for us. Usually, a limited number of people can come to the offline exhibition. So we want to overcome any space frames. With Kusmos we don’t have any restrictions online! We can find ourselves in amazing digital worlds that are impossible in the physical world.

Now that Kuflex Lab and its creation Kusmos entered our radar we will most definitely keep following their progression, as always supporting innovation and creativity in the audiovisual art world.

The post About Kusmos Live by Kuflex Lab appeared first on Audiovisualcity.

What digital did next: Digital Arts and Social Distancing

Par : Marco Savo

How digital arts can unlock value and opportunity in a socially distanced cultural sector?

Marco Savo from Audiovisual City and Kate Rolfe from The Revels Office have never met in person. Theirs is a true digital relationship born of the pandemic.

Cultural consultants who met over Zoom to explore where their world’s crossed-over, and how their mix of experience could help artists, freelancers, and the arts sector as a whole to combat this unsettling time.

Audiovisual City is a digital magazine that promotes and supports audiovisual artists and events worldwide. Connecting hundreds of digital artists from across the world, it is the go-to place for inspiration and information when it comes to the application of digital technologies in artistic expression.

The Revels Office is a cultural consultancy who specialises in finding new revenue for the arts, advising organisations on commercial opportunities and uniting them with funding partners who value the unique, high quality content that only the cultural sector can produce. Together with a network of consultants -The Catalyst Network – the team at The Revels Office manage a range of projects at the intersection between arts and commerce.

Together with a multi-disciplinary group of experts who all have touch-points with digital arts experiences, Audiovisual City and The Revels Office ran a workshop to explore what role digital arts projects could play in the future of arts organisations.

At a time when the sector is anxiously remodelling their core operations to survive months of low visitor numbers, reduced income through established business lines, and a new, uneasy socially distanced experience, we wanted to investigate what untapped value digital arts might offer.

We share with you here a summary of our findings, designed to inspire you at a critical time, to offer valuable ideas to consider in your re-modelling plans, and to decipher the role that digital can play in a sector based almost entirely on live and tangible experiences…

Case Study: Enjambre Cellular

Developed by Mónica Rikić, Enjambre Celular is a project created and designed specifically for the Medialab-Prado interactive façade.

It is a collective strategy game in which different levels and challenges must be overcome, based on the idea of a labyrinth. Controlled externally by passers-by, Enjambre Celular offers an example of a pandemic-proof artistic installation.

Case Study: Distances

Developed by Scenocosme, In this installation, two people in two separate physical spaces are filmed in real time by two devices.

They are invited to have contact virtually within the same image, bringing them together face to face. The head-to-head image created by the software is trying to constantly reduce the proxemic distance between the two people, creating unique and ephemeral meetings with the other and making a connection even when physically apart.

  • Distances Scenocosme Audiovisual Artists
  • Distances Audiovisual Artwork

Digital art vs digital design.

To make informed choices about the use of digital, it is important to understand the distinction of digital art as an artform in its own right, and digital design as a tool for engagement.

Put simply – do you need to move your live content online for commercial, audience or safety reasons, or do you want to create a new interpretation of your content that will explore your stories in an entirely new way? Neither choice is right or wrong, but it will impact the outcomes you achieve, as well as the process you go through.

“The importance of concept is key; you must start with your concept and then chose the technology to match”

Hayley Cantor

What digital art and digital design have in common is their ability to bridge between traditional cultural content and modern, digitally aware audiences, and allow people to fully interact with the arts.

No solution is quicker for overcoming an image of being elitist, static or uninteresting than a digital initiative, so long as it is done well, has a clear purpose and audience, and so long as it incorporates some kind of live and/or unique element that ensures the digital is not simply a mimic of the live experience.

While digital design is fantastic for bringing to life educational and historic content, and is arguably simpler for translating to an online platform, where digital arts stands out is in the sensorial, emotive experience that they can create, lasting longer in people’s memories and creating a sense of community and harmony even if you encounter the art alone.

Digital arts is the perfect solution for a hybrid cultural offering, connecting those experiencing it online and those there in person, allowing for smaller, safer groups to pass through it without losing the commercial, social and artistic benefits of scale.

Case Study: Virtual Archive.

Virtual Archive is a 3D, computer-generated environment open to interactive exploration by single users.

Via a VR headset, the user flies through a 3D data-point cloud formed, visualizing more than 1,700,000 documents present in SALT Research archive collections. Refik Anadol’s installation was displayed as an extension to the artist’s Archive Dreaming project.

  • Digital Archive - Audiovisual Artist
  • Digital Archive - Audiovisual Artwork

Case Study: Natural History Museum of Valparaisa.

In the Introductory Room at Natural History Museum of Valparaíso, Chile, visitors meet an installation of naturalistic illustrations of flora and fauna of the region, highlighting the work of Claudio Gay among others.

Developed by Delight Lab, this project was realised in partnership with the SUMO design and museum office for DIBAM.

  • Delight Lab - Museum Valparaiso - Audiovisual Artwork
  • Delight Lab - Museum Valparaiso - Audiovisual Artists

It’s time to set the price.

The price we have paid for the vast amounts of thrilling, comforting and informative digital content that has been dispersed throughout the global lock-down, is the expectation that digital means free.

Digital comes with development costs, artist costs and new software and/or infrastructure requirements, among other operational demands. Digital content is by no means free to create, and so why is it presented as free to consume? There are two ways of looking at this dilemma.

• Option 1 is to embrace the non-financial value that going digital presents: reaching new and much larger audiences, collecting insightful data, offering educational and social benefits, and adopting new methods in storytelling and human connection.

In this way there is still value, there are no barriers to audiences engaging with you, and you can use data and reach to collaborate with new funding partners, upsell products and services, and request donations wherever possible.

In this way we have seen a really positive response during the pandemic, with culture-lovers willingly paying for online experiences, seeing this as a charitable donation to save something they love rather than a charge for valuable entertainment. However this has not yet translated into a consistent approach that audiences and funders recognise, or indeed made up the huge gap in revenue that arts organisations face.

• Option 2 is to revaluate and recommunicate the value of the digital experience, and set up platforms that give organisations the option to charge.

Given the high value outlined by option 1, it seems reasonable that – just like the expectation to pay for the cinema or a gig – you will have to pay to participate in digital cultural experiences. This transactional view may not sit well alongside arts experiences that are traditionally free, such as museum-entry, but this demonstrates the opportunity presented by digital arts as opposed to digital design; by creating a new experience on a new platform, arts organisations can create something of value to their audiences (and new ones), one which better warrants a participation charge.

Ultimately this is an argument of supply and demand, but what we endorse is a collective reassessment of how and when to charge for digital experiences, thereby protecting arts organisations and artists from giving away valuable content for free, especially when for a time this might be one of their only viable sources of revenue.

Case Study: Fulldome Festival

The oldest full dome projection festival has been held virtually for the first time this year due to the pandemic, charging a ticket price for the online experience. A courageous decision from the organisers who decided to go full steam ahead, offering a 360 view of the festival using VR headsets.

Case Study: Mutek San Francisco, Nexus Experience

Mutek is one of the top audiovisual events worldwide, born in Montreal and then expanded through an international network. The San Francisco edition has been online this year with their ‘Nexus Experience’, hosting live AV performers on two stages, offering digital galleries, online workshops, and ‘viewing party’ film screenings. The event was free and open to donations, with 100% of the festival proceeds going directly to the artists.

  • MutekSF_Audiovisual_Event
  • Fulldome_Festival_Logo_Audiovisual_Event

Demystifying the digital process (and budget).

Digital arts experiences are impactful and memorable no matter what their size, from single exhibition displays through to city-wide festivals. While they can be huge and expensive, often a digital intervention is as cost-effective as a live experience due to the flexibility of the format, recouping investment costs over a far longer lifespan.

For those who want to consider digital as part of their future plans, digital arts producer Steph Clarke shares some considerations:

• Once a digital installation, artwork or exhibition is installed, it can often run 24/7 with minimal staffing and low running costs. Not only can this make valuable budget savings, it also accommodates far higher audience numbers over time, and can easily be adapted to allow for social distancing measures.

• Digital works can easily have their content re-purposed to suit different objectives. Content can be refreshed regularly to suit seasonality, adapted for VIP or stakeholder events, and used for advertising purposes if required.

• It is relatively easy to scale digital work depending upon size of venue or audience size, meaning this approach can be considered for a variety of projects, places and budgets.

• Digital can be used to extend and enhance audience engagement before and after the event/exhibition itself, through engagement online and via apps, creating more touchpoints with your intended audience and opportunities to capture insights and data.

• By digitalising the content for a digital installation, you are simultaneously archiving it too, preserving it for future generations and achieving important cost-savings.

• Given the huge range of digital formats available – apps, projection, light shows, VR, AR – there will always be a format suitable for your budget, timescale and objectives.

Case Study: 400 Conejos.

As part of the Bahidora 2018 festival, Medusa Lab created a unique experience for Ache Producciones and its client: Mezcal 400 conejos.

Attendees received a complimentary drink of mezcal prior entering the dome, and once inside they discovered the mezcal making process through an immersive, colour-filled experience using animations and 360 video.

  • Medusa Lab - 400 Conejos - Audiovisual Artwork
  • Medusa Lab - 400 Conejos - Audiovisual Artist

Case Study: Pinata Tweet.

Piñata was a project made by MID for +Castro agency and the SAKE production company. The piñatas were installed as part of a collaboration with Trident Senses at Benicàssim International Festival.

The interactive piñatas are controlled via Twitter messages sent by the audience. Every tweet contained #TridentSensesPinata, which activated a device that inflated the piñata. As messages accumulated, eventually the piñata exploded over the audience!

  • MID - Pinata Tweets - Audiovisual Artists
  • MID - Pinata Tweets - Audiovisual Artwork

Audiovisual City and The Revels Office plan to now work together.

We aim to connect arts organisations with digital artists and commercial partners, creating inspirational and viable projects in a time of pandemic.

Together we will champion the skills, value and authenticity that digital art and digital tools can bring those looking to find new audiences and new revenue. Get in touch to discuss how these ideas could be applied to your own organisation –

This article was written by Kate Rolfe from The Revels Office and Marco Savo from Audiovisual City with contributions from Hayley Cantor (Audiovisual City Creative Director, Multidisciplinary Graphic Designer and VJ), Sean Carroll (Business Improvement Project Manager), Nicola Casperson (Brand Marketing, Events and Place-Making Consultant), Steph Clarke (Digital Arts Producer), Marta Minguell Colomé (New Media Artist, VJ and Photographer), Amy O’Brien (Events Producer), and Mónica Rikic (New Media Artist). Collectively our experience includes roles at the National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Secret Cinema, Battersea Power Station, Westfields, and London’s Philharmonia Orchestra.


The post What digital did next: Digital Arts and Social Distancing appeared first on Audiovisualcity.

Reynolds Journalism Institute uses the Quicklink TX for Washington Journal interview

Par : quicklink

The University of Missouri School of Journalism’s Reynolds Journalism Institute recently used Quicklink TX for an on-air interview with C-SPAN on the Senate presidential impeachment trial. Staff from RJI utilized Quicklink TX to broadcast Missouri School of Law Professor and author Frank Bowman for a live, one-hour interview on C-SPAN’s morning program, Washington Journal. For ...

The post Reynolds Journalism Institute uses the Quicklink TX for Washington Journal interview appeared first on NAB Show News | 2020 NAB Show Media Partner and Producer of NAB Show LIVE. Broadcast Engineering News.

De journalistes à serveurs, livreurs… L’ascension sociale à reculons

Aux États-Unis, mais aussi en France, les journalistes deviennent serveurs dans les restaurants et les bars en espérant retrouver un job. La suppression de postes dans ce secteur n’a jamais été aussi importante que depuis la dernière crise financière de 2008.

Alors qu’en France, Canal Plus s’apprête à licencier au minimum 500 personnes (près de 18% de ses effectifs dans l’hexagone) et que de nombreux organes de presse ont entamé une cure drastique de leurs effectifs, les États-Unis affichent eux aussi de tristes records jamais égalés depuis la dernière décennie. Durant les cinq premiers mois de l’année, 3000 personnes ont été mises à la porte de groupes de presse lors de licenciements secs ou de départs négociés. Le phénomène se propage comme une trainée de poudre. La presse traditionnelle – et ses déclinaisons Internet – est touchée de plein fouet, mais également les rédactions des chaînes de télévision, ou les sites d’information en ligne. Ainsi, l’éditeur de presse Gannett (le plus important aux États-Unis avec notamment le titre USA Today diffusé à plus d’un million d’exemplaires par jour), ou encore McClatchy (2ème éditeur aux États-Unis avec 29 journaux dans divers états du pays pour un tirage quotidien de 1,6 million d’exemplaires, mais aussi éditeur de multiples sites d’information) ; GateHouse Media (144 quotidiens, 688 journaux et 570 sites d’information locale) ; BuzzFeed et Vice Media, sites d’info-divertissement à audience globale, ou encore la chaîne CNN, tous ont licencié pour tenter de maintenir leur rentabilité… sans y parvenir. Le phénomène ne devrait pas ralentir avec les fusion-acquisitions qui se préparent entre les groupes de presse Gannett, GateHouse Media, McClatchy et Tribune Publishing (3ème éditeur aux Etats-Unis avec le Chicago Tribune, New-York Daily News…).

Aujourd’hui, le nombre de licenciement a dépassé le précédent record de 2009, lorsque 7.914 journalistes avaient perdu leur emploi dans la foulée de la crise financière des subprimes. Des chiffres publiés il y a quelques semaines par le cabinet spécialisé Challenger, Gray & Christmas Inc. Un décompte qui prend en considération le groupe Verizon Media – maison mère du Huffington Post et de Yahoo -, qui annonçait en janvier dernier 800 licenciements dans tous ses services. Selon l’institut de recherche Pew Research Center, 88.000 personnes travaillent pour des rédactions aux Etats-Unis. Malgré la santé économique florissante du pays et un taux de chômage au plus bas depuis 1969, le secteur du journalisme fait tache au pays de l’oncle Sam. Comme le note le vice-président de l’institut Pew Research, Andrew Challenger : « dans la plupart des autres secteurs, les entreprises peinent à trouver les bons candidats ; pour le journalisme, c’est tout le contraire. Les licenciements ont créé une surabondance de profils hyper-qualifiés en recherche de poste que l’offre actuelle ne permet pas de combler. Et cela risque de s’accélérer encore. » Lorsqu’en mai dernier, le petit site Internet Bklyner, centré sur l’actualité de Brooklyn, a posté une offre d’emploi pour trouver un reporter politique, 16 journalistes ont envoyé leur candidature en moins d’une heure : « beaucoup d’entre eux avaient des parcours incroyables, au niveau national, que ce soit à CNN, Reuters ou New York Magazine. Je regardais ma boite email et me disais ‘Oh mon dieu !’ Je n’avais jamais vu ça… Des profils hyper-expérimentés, et la vitesse à laquelle les candidatures arrivaient. C’était vraiment déprimant ; cela en dit long sur la crise du secteur », expliquait Liena Zagare, éditrice du site, dans une interview. Quelques journaux sortent du lot. Ainsi, The Los Angeles Times a recruté une centaine de personnes dans son équipe éditoriale depuis que le milliardaire Patrick Soon-Shiong a racheté le quotidien en juin dernier. The Washington Post a également annoncé l’embauche de 10 journalistes d’investigation.

Tu seras journaliste, en recherche d’emploi…

Aux États-Unis, les emplois de journalistes dans les médias d’information ont chuté de 23% entre 2008 et 2017.
A cela plusieurs raisons :
·       La presse traditionnelle a vu la plupart de ses recettes publicitaires s’effondrer alors que son lectorat s’évaporer dans les méandres de l’Internet.
·       La déclinaison des journaux en numérique – souvent accompagnée d’une méconnaissance totale des codes du digital au sein du management et des rédactions (faut-il réutiliser les articles et les adapter au web ? Créer une rédaction web séparée ? Rémunérer les journalistes pour leurs articles sur le web ? [cette demande venant principalement de ces derniers] – a pris beaucoup de retard alors qu’en parallèle les GAFAs devenaient très puissants et attiraient de plus en plus de jeunes lecteurs (surfeurs ?) et d’annonceurs.
·       Il y a eu une perte de valeur des revenus tirés des bannières publicitaires sur le web comparés au prix des pages papier. Résultat, beaucoup de déclinaisons web de journaux ne sont toujours pas rentables et le papier reste encore la principale source de revenus, malgré une perte de valeur.
·       Les multiples départs (volontaires ou pas) de journalistes (secrétaires de rédaction, correcteurs, rédacteurs, pigistes…) remplacés par des stagiaires ou des personnes moins chers payés et sans expérience, a eu un impact sur la qualité des journaux.
·       L’arrivée du web avec la disponibilité immédiate des infos (pas toujours vérifiées) a changé la manière de traiter l’actualité dans le métier. Cette concurrence inédite de l’Internet a stressé les éditeurs de moins en moins enclins à payer des journalistes pour des enquêtes de fond qui prennent du temps « sans que rien ne soit publié à court terme ». Les éditeurs ont – à leur tour – stressé les journalistes en les invitant à être davantage productifs, avec pour conséquence moins de présence sur le terrain, moins de budget pour leurs déplacements, un encadrement plus poussé avec notamment le travail en open-space (bruyant et qui nuit à la concentration) mais qui permet de garder un œil sur l’ensemble de la rédaction et des écrans, avec les dérives que cela entraine : plus de stress, moins de temps à vérifier ses sources, la réécriture de communiqués de presse plutôt que d’articles originaux…
·       Les news présentes sur les sites des journaux ont été récupérées trop longtemps par Google sans qu’aucune rémunération ne soit reversée aux éditeurs.
·       Les annonceurs ont investis une part croissante de leur budget dans le Web, la vidéo sur Internet, les AdWords… L’année dernière, Facebook et Google ont concentré les 3/4 des investissements publicitaires on-line aux Etats-Unis.
Certains sites d’information proposant des contenus rédactionnels ont récupéré des journalistes mais la faible rentabilité du secteur n’a pas permis de maintenir ces emplois. Cette fragilité des médias en ligne est une des raisons du phénomène de syndicalisation des rédacteurs au Etats-Unis. Dans le groupe Vox Media (maison-mère de sites web The Verge [techno], Eater [nourriture], SB Nation [sport]…), un accord a été signé avec la direction afin de garantir un minimum de 11 semaines de salaires en cas de licenciement.

En janvier dernier, John Stanton, un ancien correspondant à Washington pour BuzzFeed News (site web qui a notamment révélé les liens supposés de Trump avec la Russie) a fait partie des 250 licenciés. Quelques mois plus tard, le journaliste participait au démarrage du projet « Sauvez le journalisme » (Save Journalism) afin d’attirer l’attention du public sur la manière dont des géants du numérique comme Facebook et Google mettent les rédactions et les journalistes en danger en accaparant le marché publicitaire. Grâce à ce projet, des tribunes libres ont été publiées dans la presse, une campagne de pub a été lancée dans les journaux et sur les réseaux sociaux. Un avion tirant une bâche publicitaire où figurait le hashtag  #savelocalnews a même survolé la conférence annuelle Google 2019 en mai dernier à San Francisco. « Nous voulons faire réagir le public et nos confrères et prévenir de l’impact qu’ont les géants de l’Internet sur le métier de journaliste, explique Stanton. Nous devons nous protéger ou nous n’aurons plus de travail ! ». Et d’ajouter : « Beaucoup de mes collègues licenciés par BuzzFeed sont toujours à la recherche d’un travail stable dans une rédaction. Plusieurs sont devenus indépendants, faute de mieux. Ils peinent à gagner 400 dollars pour un article de 1000 mots qui peut prendre une semaine à rédiger ! »

Les GAFA sont souvent montrés du doigt pour leurs modèles économiques « disruptifs » et leur impact sur les secteurs traditionnels (commerce, hôtellerie, transport…). Leur recherche de contenus frais pour alimenter leurs sites a permis à certains (ex)-journalistes d’intégrer ces nouveaux « médium » alors que les rédactions licenciaient à tour de bras. Amazon fait appel à des rédacteurs pour couvrir l’actualité faits-divers et cambriolage aux Etats-Unis. Ces scribes d’un nouveau genre servent à alimenter son site commercial Ring, qui vend des produits de vidéo-surveillance aux américains. Facebook, Apple, Snapchat et Google ont tous fait appel aux rédacteurs et ex-journalistes afin d’alimenter en contenus leur offre digitale. Au pays de l’oncle Sam, trouver un job de journaliste est un vrai défi selon son lieu de résidence. L’année dernière, Emma Roller, 30 ans, a fait jouer ses droits au départ pour quitter le site Internet Splinter (Univison group – Gizmodo Media) où elle officiait comme journaliste politique à Washington. Elle s’est mariée, a emménagé à Chicago pour se rapprocher de sa famille. Sur place, les seules offres de travail de journaliste impliquaient qu’elle reparte à Washington, ou qu’elle emménage à New-York ou Los Angeles. « Tous les médias sont concentrés dans ces trois villes, regrette l’ex-journaliste qui s’en sort en travaillant à mi-temps dans une école et dans un café, comme serveuse. J’ai choisi de quitter une ville où il y avait encore du travail, pour combien de temps ? Je ne sais pas. Mais le problème est structurel. La mutation du secteur provoque une casse sociale qu’on ne soupçonnait pas. » Même un prestigieux prix de journalisme ne garantit pas de boucler ses fins de mois. Il y a deux ans, Chris Outcalt a intégré une startup qui désirait lancer un site Internet de news sur les technologies. Mais les employés ont vite été licenciés faute de rentabilité. Chris Outcalt s’est donc retrouvé freelance. Grâce à l’un de ses articles, le jeune homme a remporté le prestigieux prix Livingstone (qui récompense les journalistes de moins de 35 ans) en juin dernier pour son reportage « Murder at the Alcatraz of the Rockies » qui décrit le meurtre d’un détenu filmé par plusieurs caméras, dans l’une des prisons les plus surveillées du Colorado. Malgré ce succès éphémère, le jeune homme cherche encore un travail à temps plein. Car être serveur dans un bar de Denver n’est pas l’aboutissement qu’il espérait pour sa carrière. « Je me demande souvent si je pourrai retrouver quelque chose de stable dans ce secteur, un job avec au moins une assurance santé pour me soigner. Personne ne choisi ce métier pour devenir riche. Mais j’imagine que peu de jeunes candidats chercheront à intégrer ce métier quand on leur dira qu’il faut travailler deux nuits par semaine comme serveur pour survivre. »

Malgré la situation, les écoles de journalismes font le plein. Leurs formations prennent une nouvelle direction. Quarante quatre jeunes journalistes diplômés sortiront cet automne de l’université du Maryland, douze de plus que l’année précédente. Les cours intègrent aujourd’hui davantage de modules audio car cette génération « semble affectionner particulièrement les podcasts », explique Lucy Dalglish, doyenne du collège de journalisme Philip Merrill. De nouveaux modules sont enseignés. Les thèmes « écrire pour être lu » deviennent « écrire pour être référencé par les moteurs de recherche ». De nouveaux modes d’écritures appararaîssent : « apprendre à écrire en 140 caractères » [280 aujourd’hui, Ndlr] pour être un bon « journaliste » tweeter ; les formations s’orientent vers le story-telling pour un futur plus qu’incertain où les jeunes travailleront à la tâche, en tant que « livreur d’articles », à l’instar de l’ubérisation de l’économie. D’ailleurs, le site Bloomberg utilise depuis plus d’un an Cyborg, un algorithme qui adapte les données financières en articles parfaitement lisibles. Forbes fait appel à Bertie, une intelligence artificielle qui ébauche les grandes lignes d’un article en appui des journalistes qui les finalisent. Le Washington Post dispose d’un robot-reporter, baptisé Heliograf, qui a écrit 850 articles la première année et a remporté le prix The Post, une récompense pour son « Excellence dans l’utilisation de Bots » lors de l’élection présidentielle américaine de 2016. Même si ses programmes informatiques sont présentés comme des aides pour les journalistes, peu s’en faut pour qu’ils deviennent autonomes. Et devinez qui en sortira vainqueur ?